Radiocarbon dating sphinx
The debate over when the Giza complex was constructed is still ongoing.
To give just one example, Syncellus, who copied Africanus' list, wrote, "The twenty-fourth dynasty, Bocchoris of Sais, for six years: in his reign a lamb spoke [a short gap in the manuscript] 990 years." Meanwhile Eusebius wrote, "Bocchoris of Sais for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.We have seen that the cartouches found in the 'Relieving chambers' are the best evidence yet for dating the site as the inscriptions run under and behind other blocks and therefore appear genuine.It is clear that any results from that line of research are in themselves complicated by the interpretation of the cartouches exact meaning. We know that the use of Giza was not restricted to the 4th dynasty pharaohs because of earlier finds in the area.A tomb just on the outskirts of the Giza site dates from the reign of the First dynasty Pharaoh Wadj (Djet), and jar sealings discovered in a tomb in the southern part of Giza mention the Third dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer.
How does it affect the context of Ghiza, knowing that it was used before the Fourth dynasty?The first problem with Manetho's dynasties was that the Egyptians left few clues as to which dynasty followed which; they weren't interested in recording which dynasties ended in a revolution and which simply died out.